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Turkish has native speakers in Turkey, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece, Azerbaijan, Kosovo and Romania. 55 to 60 million live in Turkey and 10 to 15 million in the other countries mentioned. Turkish is the official language in Turkey and Cyprus. It belongs to the family of the same name, oghuz branch. The main characteristic of Turkish is agglutination. The normal order is Subject-Complement-Verb.

Turkish has no nominal classes or grammatical gender. Another salient feature is the use of different second person pronouns indicating degrees of politeness, social distance, age or familiarity with the interlocutor. Thus, as in French, the second person plural can address a single person. Turkish was written with the Arabic alphabet until Romanization in 1928. Its literature began in the 7th century AD.

Turkish language grammar