Audio course in Italian and grammar
By its common origin with French and Spanish, the Italian language has a grammar very similar to these two Latin languages. There are invariable words in Italian such as articles, substantives, adjectives, pronouns and verbs. But as in French we also find words which are invariable: adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. The word order in Italian is similar to French.
History of the Italian language
The origin of Italian dates back to the birth of Latin around 1400 BC. At that time, Latin existed in two forms; Latin called "vulgar" (spoken or popular Latin) spoken by the peasant class and that called "illustrated" (classical Latin) spoken by the elites, often used in the drafting of literary, scientific or religious texts. However, the "vulgar" form under the influence of several factors of the Etruscans, Osco-Umbrians, Gauls and Greeks underwent some transformations on several levels (syntactic, phonetic and linguistic) which favored the birth of several dialects throughout Italian territory.
Like many countries, Italy was not a unified state at the start of its history. It was a vast territory subdivided into independent regions. Each province had its own dialect, but it was Tuscan that became the vehicular and official language of the national territory.
The language of Florence: It was around the 9th and 10th centuries that writings in "vulgar" language began to appear. Thus in the 13th century, the language spoken in Florence began to be used by writers and notaries. Florence being a large city, its geographical and economic position favored the development of the arts. The demand for a language capable of uniting Italy began to be felt.
Between 1303 and 1305, the main dialects were identified to see which would be the most suitable and the most worthy of becoming the literary language. This language should be illustrious by its literary, cardinal tradition, because it would be the fixed point around which all dialects should revolve, noble and solemn, because it should be worthy of being used in high places such as at court or in courts. According to research, Tuscan met all of these criteria. In 1861, when the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed, Tuscan was chosen as the unifying language. Italy being a multilingual country, has several vernacular languages such as: Piedmontese, Neapolitan, Sicilian, Venetian, Lombard, Sardinian, Emilian-Romagna, Friulian ...
Learning a language often begins with its alphabet, with French and Italian being sister languages (derived from Latin). Italian grammar has a lot of similarity with French grammar and that of Spanish as well as vocabulary. Italian is a Romance language, belonging to the same linguistic family as French and Spanish. However, the Italian alphabet contains 21 letters (16 consonants and 5 vowels) unlike that of French.
A = a; B = bi; C = ci; D = di; E = e; F = effe; G = gi; H = acca; I = i; L = her; M = ms; N = enne; O = o; P = pi; Q = qu; R = wanders; S = esse; T = ti; U = or; V = vi and Z = zeta.
The vowels in Italian are naturally: A, E, I, O, U.
Italian is a very phonetic language, meaning that words are pronounced as they are written. To go faster, here are some basics:
The vowels A, I, and O in front of the letter "C" and "G" are pronounced exactly as in French;
Ex: Ca = ka, Co = ko, Cu = kou; Ga = gua, Go = guo, Gu = guou, but Ci / Ce = tch, SCi / SCe = ch, Chi / Che = qu; Gi / Ge = dje, Ghi / Ghe = gui / gue and Gli = yi.
The letter "Q" is invariably followed by a "U" as in French and gives the sound "neck". As for the letter "Z", it gives the sound "tz" like the word "pizza" which is pronounced "pitza"
The composition of words in Italian
In Italian, most words end in a vowel "a" feminine, "o" in the masculine and "i" in the plural. Italian words can be distinguished into nine (9) categories; on the one hand the variables: articles, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs and on the other hand the invariable words such as adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.
The article in Italian
In the masculine singular, the definite article “ he ” is used when the word it precedes begins with a consonant and “ lo ” is used before words starting with a vowel or in the case of so-called impure consonants ( ps, pn, gn, x, z).
For the masculine plural, the letter “ I ” is used for consonants and “ gli ” is used before impure or vowel consonants.
In the feminine singular, we use “ la ” before a consonant and “ l ” before a vowel, but in the feminine plural it is “ the ” which is usual in all cases.
In addition, indefinite articles also have their instructions for use. In the masculine singular, we use "un" in a general way and "uno" before words beginning with an impure consonant or a vowel, but in the feminine singular "una" is used before a consonant and "un" before words beginning with a vowel. However, it should be noted that there is no indefinite plural as such, but we often use the masculine partitive "degli" or the feminine "delle", or sometimes the indefinite ones like "qualche" and '' alcuni / alcune '”which are two forms to say in French' some '.
In Italian, personal pronouns are used as subjects when we want to emphasize the one performing the action.
Like French, people exist
Io = I
Noi = us
You = you
See = you
Lei = politeness you
Lei / ella = she
Him / egli = he
Loro = you (politeness)
Loro = they, they
Essa / esso = she / he (used to designate things or animals) as well as essi / esse = they / them.